Posts

Human papillomavirus vaccination against cervical dysplasia

The effectiveness of a vaccination program is influenced by its design and implementation details and by the target population characteristics. Using routinely collected population‐based individual‐level data, we assessed the effectiveness (against cervical dysplasia) of Manitoba’s quadrivalent human papillomavirus (qHPV) routine school‐based vaccination program and a short‐lived campaign that targeted women at high‐risk of developing cervical cancer. We published the results of our study in the International Journal of Cancer.

Statins, metformin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma incidence

Non‐Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL) are a group of cancers with highly heterogeneous biology and clinical features. Statins are increasingly prescribed to prevent cardiovascular diseases. Early evidence shows a preventive effect of statins for some cancers, but their effect on NHL risk is unclear. Several epidemiological studies have shown a positive association between diabetes and increased risk of NHL, but the effect of diabetic treatment drugs such as metformin on the risk is unknown. We conducted population‐based nested case–control studies to study the effect of both drugs and published the results in the International Journal of Cancer and Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention.

The cost of HPV infection in Manitoba

The total direct cost of screening and treating all human papillomavirus-related diseases (HPV-RD) has not been measured in a single study. Accurate cost estimates are needed to inform decisions on intervention priorities and evaluate the cost-effectiveness of existing programs. We used province-wide clinical, administrative, and accounting databases to measure direct medical costs of HPV infection in Manitoba (Canada). We published the results of our study in Applied Health Economics and Health Policy.

Report on mood disorders in Manitoba

Mood (affective) disorders are group of common mental illnesses characterized by disturbance in mood and affect. They include disorders of depressed mood (e.g., major depressive disorder or depression) as well as disorders of elevated and mixed mood such as bipolar disorder. We studied mood disorders in our report: The epidemiology, outcomes and social and economic burden of mood disorders in Manitoba: A data-linkage retrospective cohort study

Effectiveness of the human papillomavirus vaccination program against anogenital warts in Manitoba, Canada

The human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection, which is responsible for virtually all-cervical cancer. Additionally, infection with HPV types 6 and 11 are responsible for 90% of anogenital warts (AGW). Our recent publication examined the effectiveness of the quadrivalent HPV vaccine (qHPV) against the development of AGW in Manitoba. Since AGW incidence peaks months after HPV infection compared to years required to develop cervical cancer the effectiveness of qHPV at reducing the incident risk of AGW provides a good proxy for the ability of vaccination to prevent HPV associated disease.

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India Pre-Exposure HIV Prophylaxis (PrEP) Trial

Despite yearly decreases in HIV prevalence and transmission due to increased education, condom use, and treatment the HIV epidemic in India remains the third largest in the world. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) provides a promising new HIV intervention to reduce HIV infection rates among high-risk populations. VDEC director Dr. Salah Mahmud is collaborating on the India PrEP trial, which seeks to examine the feasibility and impact of providing PrEP along with current preventative measures to female sex workers who are at high risk of HIV infection.

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Dr. Salah Mahmud elected to the Royal Society of Canada

We congratulate VDEC founding director Dr. Salah Mahmud on his election as a member of the Royal Society of Canada’s (RSC) College of New Scholars, Artists, and Scientists. Election to the Royal Society is the highest honor a Canadian academic can achieve! The distinction takes into account an academics contribution to society, their interdisciplinary approaches to research and novel contributions made in their field. Dr. Mahmud’s RSC citation and the 2017 cohort of newly elected members are found here. Please also see the related news article in the current edition of UM today http://news.umanitoba.ca/duo-inducted-into-rsc-college-2/.

Early Career Researcher Program Award

We would like to congratulate Vaccine and Drug Evaluation Centre associated researcher Dr. Xibiao Ye on his Early Career Researcher Program Principal Investigator Award.

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Causal Diagrams: A Primer - Webinar

Causal diagrams allow visualization of different variables within a system and how they are interrelated. Join Dr. Salah Mahmud as he discusses the use of causal diagrams as a procedure to test for confounding and how they can function as an aid to help make rational decisions about study design, data analysis, and interpretation. Sponsored by the ACP. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZlGAlG6uMAY.

Lymphoma Trends 1984-2014

Lymphoma is a group of cancers originating within the immune system when cells that normally fight infection undergo changes resulting in their uncontrolled expansion. The type of lymphoma that develops depends on the cell type in which the changes occur. We recently published a study examining 30-year time trends (1984-2014) in adult lymphoma incidence, mortality and relative survival in Manitoba, Canada.

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High-Dose Influenza Vaccine

Influenza is particularly dangerous in the elderly. However, the elderly often have a reduced response to vaccine complicating control of the flu in this vulnerable group. Our recent publication compared the efficiency of both high and low-dose influenza vaccine in people > 65 years old finding that patients receiving high-dose vaccine had a significant reduction in the risk of developing laboratory-confirmed influenza infection.

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Trends in Invasive Pneumoccocal Disease

Infection with pneumococcal bacteria causes serious diseases such as meningitis and bacteremia, collectively known as invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), as well as lung, sinuses, and middle ear infections. In a newly published study, we followed the incidence of IPD in Manitoba between 2001 and 2014.

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Vaccination against Cervical Cancer

It is now known that Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection is required for the development of cervical cancer. We published one of the first population-based studies examining the ability of vaccines against HPV to reduce cervical dysplasia, which is an early step in the development of cervical cancer.

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